International Journal of Biological Sciences. Journal of Cancer. Journal of Genomics.
Disclosures of potential conflicts of interest may be found at the end of this article. Describe the undistinguishable global gene expression patterns of non-basal-like TN tumors versus non-TN tumors that are non-basal-like. Describe the relationship between TN heterogeneity and tumor heterogeneity plus microenvironmental heterogeneity.
Many breast cancer cells have receptors for estrogen or progesterone. Most triple-negative breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS may also be triple negative.
Not all breast cancers are the same. Understand what type of breast cancer you have and how it differs from other types of breast cancer. Once you've been diagnosed with breast cancer, your doctor will review your pathology report and the results of any imaging tests to understand the specifics of your tumor. Using a tissue sample from your breast biopsy or using your tumor if you've already undergone surgery, your medical team determines your breast cancer type.
Researchers are studying how molecular subtypes of breast cancer may be useful in planning treatment and developing new therapies. The complex profile of each subtype is determined using molecular and genetic information from tumor cells. These subtypes also appear in ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS [ ].
Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2 to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breast cancer is often modelled using established cell lines.
Breast cancer cell lines have been widely used for breast cancer modelling which encompasses a panel of diseases with distinct phenotypical associations. Though cell lines provide unlimited homogenous materials for tumor studies and are relatively easy to culture, they are known to accumulate mutations duringthe initial establishment and subsequent series of cultivations. Thus, whether breast cancer cell line heterogeneity reflects that of carcinoma remains an important issue to resolve before drawing any reliable conclusion at the tumor level using cell lines.
Breast cancer cell lines have been used widely to investigate breast cancer pathobiology and new therapies. Breast cancer is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and it is important to understand how well and which cell lines best model that diversity. In particular, microarray studies have identified molecular subtypes—luminal A, luminal B, ERBB2-associated, basal-like and normal-like—with characteristic gene-expression patterns and underlying DNA copy number alterations CNAs.
The basal-like carcinoma is a recently proposed subtype of breast cancer defined by its gene expression and protein expression profile. Since Preou et al. This marks the modern clinical pathological diagnosis of breast cancer has transferred from simple morphological diagnosis into morphological and molecular features combined diagnosis.